Saturday, July 28, 2007

Individual Differences Across Cultures

Individual Differences Across Cultures

Social Orientation

Relative importance of the interests of the individual vs. the interests of the group.

- Individualism

The interests of the individual take precedence

- Collectivism

The interests of the group take precedence

Power Orientation

The appropriateness of power / authority within organizations

- Power Respect

Authority is inherent in one’s position within a hierarchy

- Power Tolerances

Individuals assess authority in view of its perceived rightness or their own personal interest

Uncertainty Orientation

An emotional response to uncertainty and change

- Uncertainty Acceptance

Positive response to change and view opportunities

- Uncertainty Avoidance

Prefer structure and a consistent routine

Goal Orientation

What motivates people to achieve different goals

- Aggressive Goal Behavior

Value material possessions, money, and assertiveness

- Passive Goal Behavior

Value social relevance, quality of life and the welfare of others

Time Orientation

The extent to which members of a culture adopt a long-term or a short-term outlook on work and life

- Long-Term Outlook

Value dedication, hard work and self-image

- Short-Term Outlook

Place less emphasis on hard work

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